Problems of common man essay

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The importance of investing in youth has been recognized in India's Constitution.

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Policies and programmes focussing on education [National policy on education modified in , Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan , Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan ] , welfare [National Policy for the Empowerment of Women ; Balika Samridhi Yojana , ; National Policy on Child Labour, ] , employment Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana and others National Policy for Persons with Disabilities have included young people and highlight health as one of the components. In many of these, the detailed implementation — monitoring and evaluation plan are not elaborated in detail and their impact needs to be examined in detail.

Some of the health policies and programmes have also given a place for youth; a few have a specific youth health focus while others make an indirect mention. Some of these are also focussed on mothers and children. The National Population Policy , the National Health Policy and the National AIDS Prevention and Control Policy have all articulated India's commitment to promoting and protecting the health and rights of adolescents and youth, including those relating to mental, and sexual and reproductive health The Recent National Programme on Prevention and Control of Cancer, Cardiovascular Diseases, Diabetes and Stroke also has a focus on health promotion and early recognition of health impacting behaviours.

The adapted strategies include youth empowerment, gender justice, inter-sectoral approach, and an information and research network. The priority target groups under the policy include rural and tribal youth, out-of-school youth, adolescents particularly females, youth with disabilities and adolescents under special circumstances like victims of trafficking; orphans and street children A number of State-specific policies and programmes also exist that highlight State strategies for meeting the needs of youth It is also apparent that the impact of these policies on health of youth has not been evaluated for its coverage, comprehensiveness, efficacy and effectiveness.

The present review, though limited in nature highlights that a significant proportion of youth has health impacting behaviours and conditions that affect their growth and development, that the problem is on the increase, many are interlinked and coexist, and likely to increase in the coming years. Some of the major health impacting behaviours and problems among the young people include undernutrition and overnutrition, common mental disorders including stress and anxiety, suicidal tendencies and increased suicidal death rates, increased consumption of tobacco, alcohol and other substance use, NCDs, high risk sexual behaviours including STIs and importantly, injuries mainly RTIs and violence.

Many of these problems are closely linked to ongoing nutrition and epidemiological transition and are behaviour related with a life course perspective. There is a strong need for public health community to identify, prepare, integrate and implement activities that help to promote health and healthy lifestyles of young people and establish mechanisms for delivery of population-based interventions along with measuring its impact.

There is a need to generate good quality and robust population data that can drive policies and programmes. Strategic investments in health, nutrition, education, employment and welfare are critical for healthy growth of young people and these programmes need to be monitored and evaluated for their efficacy and effectiveness using public health approaches. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Indian J Med Res.

Singh Sunitha and Gopalkrishna Gururaj. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Reprint requests : Dr G. Received Jan This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract The young people in the age group of yr in India constitutes one of the precious resources of India characterized by growth and development and is a phase of vulnerability often influenced by several intrinsic and extrinsic factors that affect their health and safety.

Keywords: Health promotion, high risk sexual behaviours, India, mental health problems, nutrition disorders, road traffic injuries, substance use, suicides, young people.

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Introduction Young people form precious human resources in every country. What characterizes adolescents and youth? Young people's health is vital and crucial Most young people are presumed to be healthy but, as per WHO, an estimated 2. Review methods All available population based studies with large sample size, being multicentric in nature, covering urban and rural areas , independent studies and reports published since were considered.

Health problems of young people Although adolescence and young adulthood are generally considered healthy times of life, several important public health and social behaviours and problems either start or peak during these years Undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies Data shown in Table I indicate a high prevalence of undernutrition and stunting in the age group of yr that has an adverse bearing on their health. Table I Status of undernutrition and micronutrient deficiency in India.

Open in a separate window. Overweight and obesity Conversely, overweight and obesity - another form of malnutrition with serious health consequences is increasing among other young people in India and other Low Middle Income Countries LMICs 8. Table II Prevalence of overweight and obesity as reported in Indian studies.

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High risk sexual behaviour High-risk sexual behaviour is a broad term covering early sexual activity especially before 18 years of age and includes unprotected intercourse without male or female condom use except in a long-term, single-partner monogamous relationship, unprotected mouth-to-genital contact except in a long-term monogamous relationship, having multiple sex partners, having a high-risk partner one who has multiple sex partners or other risk factors , exchange of sex sex work for drugs or money, having anal sex or having a partner who does except in a long-term, single-partner monogamous relationship and having sex with a partner who injects or has ever injected drugs Common mental disorders At least 20 per cent of young people are likely to experience some form of mental illness - such as depression, mood disturbances, substance abuse, suicidal behaviours, eating disorders and others 8.

Table IV Common mental disorders among young Indians. Stress Stress is a consequence of or a general response to an action or situation arising from an interaction of the person with his environment and places special physical or psychological demands, or both, on a person.

Tobacco use The vast majority of tobacco users worldwide begin the use of tobacco during adolescence. Table V Prevalence of tobacco use in young people. Harmful alcohol use Harmful drinking among young people is an increasing concern in many countries and is linked to nearly 60 health conditions. Table VI Alcohol use prevalence and patterns among young adults. Other substance use disorders Substance abuse apart from tobacco and alcohol is one of the major emerging problems among the young population and needs to be tackled effectively.

Non-communicable diseases NCDs NCDs include a number of conditions that are behaviour linked and lifestyle related in nature. Road traffic injuries RTIs Road traffic injuries 1,85, deaths; 29 per cent of all unintentional injury deaths are the leading cause of unintentional injury mortality in India Table VII Prevalence and pattern of violence among young people.

Multiple health behaviours and co-morbid conditions It is important to highlight that some behaviours and conditions listed above and several others not covered here do not occur in isolation but are often seen as coexisting behaviours and as co-morbid conditions. Responding to the challenge The importance of investing in youth has been recognized in India's Constitution.

Conclusion The present review, though limited in nature highlights that a significant proportion of youth has health impacting behaviours and conditions that affect their growth and development, that the problem is on the increase, many are interlinked and coexist, and likely to increase in the coming years. References 1.

Adolescent health and development. World Health Organization. The World Health Report Life in the 21 st Century. A vision for all. Report of the Director-General. Chapter 3. Geneva: World Health Organization; Health across the life span; pp. Stang J, Story M. Chapter 1. Adolescent growth and development.

Guidelines for adolescent nutrition services. Jekielek S, Brown B. May, [accessed on June 20, ]. Planning commission. New Delhi: Sep, [accessed on June 18, ]. Report of the Steering committee on youth affairs and sports for the eleventh five year plan p. National Health Profile New Delhi: Prabhat Publicity; Central Bureau of Health Intelligence. Demographic indicators.

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Dev SM, Venkatanarayana M. Mumbai: indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research; Youth employment and unemployment in India. World Health Organization; Young people: health risks and solutions. Fact sheet no. Adolescent Health Services: Missing Opportunities. Grand challenges in global mental health: integration in research, policy, and practice.

PLoS Med. Gururaj G. Injury prevention and care: an important public health agenda for health, survival and safety of children. Indian J Pediatr. Adolescent Health - Healthy People.

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Trends in adolescent and young adult health in the United States. J Adolesc Health. Hyderabad: National Institute of Nutrition; National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau. A study of the health status of early adolescent girls residing in social welfare hostels in Vizianagaram district of Andhra Pradesh state, India. Intestinal parasitic infections, anaemia and undernutrition among tribal adolescents of Madhya Pradesh. Indian J Community Med. Nutritional status of adolescent girls in rural area of Varanasi.

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A comparison of the nutritional status of adolescents from selected schools of South India and UAE : a cross-sectional study. Mumbai: International Institute for Population Sciences. A profile of youth in India. Nutrient intake amongst rural adolescent girls of Wardha. Nutritional status of adolescents in rural Wardha. Adolescents in India: A profile. Childhood obesity in India: a meta-analysis.

Determinants of overweight and obesity in affluent adolescent in Surat city, South Gujarat region, India. Prevalence and determinants of overweight and obesity among adolescent school children of South Karnataka, India. Prevalence of obesity and overweight in affluent adolescents from Ludhiana, Punjab. Indian Pediatr. Factors affecting prevalence of overweight among to year-old urban adolescents in Hyderabad, India.

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