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In around B. Most of all, Pericles paid artisans to build temples An ambiguous, controversial concept, Jacksonian Democracy in the strictest sense refers simply to the ascendancy of Andrew Jackson and the Democratic party after How will it end? Who was the first man? Where do souls go after death? The term Ancient, or Archaic, Greece refers to the years B.
Archaic Greece saw advances in art, poetry and technology, but is known as the age in which the polis, or city-state, was How exactly ancient Greek urbanites divvied up their cities has long been a subject of debate among experts, according to Gabriel Zuchtriegel, a University of Bonn archaeologists who coordinates digs at Selinunte. Beginning in the eighth century B. Among the many legacies The amazing works of art and architecture known as the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World serve as a testament to the ingenuity, imagination and sheer hard work of which human beings are capable.
They are also, however, reminders of the human capacity for disagreement, Love to grill? In fact, the Greeks beat us all to it by more than 3, years. Recently, archeologist Julie Hruby of Dartmouth College presented her research findings about how exactly the ancient Greeks used their grills at the Archeological Institute In the spring of , a group of Greek sponge divers were returning from North Africa when they were blown off course during a storm and forced to take shelter near the small island of Antikythera, located between Crete and Kythera in the Aegean Sea.
While looking for clams for This Day In History. Who Could Vote in Ancient Greece? Ancient Greek Art. This easy access to water meant that the Greek people might naturally become explorers and traders. Second, Greece's mountainous terrain led to the development of the polis city-state , beginning about B. The high mountains made it very difficult for people to travel or communicate.
Therefore, each polis developed independently and, often, very differently from one another. Eventually, the polis became the structure by which people organized themselves.co.organiccrap.com/185484.php
Nomos essays athenian law politics and society | Ancient history | Cambridge University Press
Athens and Sparta are two good examples of city-states that contrasted greatly with each other. The city-state of Athens was the birthplace of many significant ideas. Ancient Athenians were a thoughtful people who enjoyed the systematic study of subjects such as science, philosophy, and history, to name a few. Life in Sparta was vastly different from life in Athens. Located in the southern part of Greece on the Peloponnisos peninsula, the city-state of Sparta developed a militaristic society ruled by two kings and an oligarchy, or small group that exercised political control.
5a. Rise of City-States: Athens and Sparta
Early in their history, a violent and bloody slave revolt caused the Spartans to change their society. A Spartan, Lycurgus, drafted a harsh set of laws that required total dedication to the state from its people. The laws' goal was to train citizens to become hardened soldiers so that they could fight off potential enemies or slave revolts. The result was a rigid lifestyle unlike any seen in Greece at the time. The devotion of Spartans to developing a military state left little time for the arts or literature.
A Spartan baby had to be hardy and healthy.
To test a baby's strength, parents would leave their child on a mountain overnight to see if it could survive on its own until the next morning. By age seven, Spartan boys were taken from their families and underwent severe military training. They wore uniforms at all times, ate small meals of bland foods, exercised barefoot to toughen their feet, and were punished severely for disobedient behavior.
Boys lived away from their families in barracks until the age of 30, even after they were married. Men were expected to be ready to serve in the army until they were 60 years old. Women, too, were expected to be loyal and dedicated to the state.
Like men, women followed a strict exercise program and contributed actively to Spartan society. Every woman in Athens had a kris guardian who was either her closest male birth-relative or her husband. Although she could own her clothing, jewelry, and personal slave and purchase inexpensive items, she was not allowed to buy anything else, or to own property or enter into any contract.
Her kris controlled everything about her life Oswyn, , p. Citizenship for a woman entitled her to marry a male citizen and to join certain religious cults that were closed to men and non-citizens, but it did not give her any political or economic benefits Oswyn, , pp. Compared to the women of Sparta, the status of an Athenian woman in Greek society was minimal.
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Athenian wives were only a small step above slaves. From birth a girl was not expected to learn how to read or write, and she could never expect to earn an education. Boys were taught reading and writing, while girls were taught spinning and other domestic duties by the slaves her family had Oswyn, , p. There are some notable exceptions. For example, there was Hipparchia, a philosopher of the Cynic school.
Who Could Vote in Ancient Greece?
Education Most Greek women, however, did not get an education. The famous philosopher Aristotle said: "It is advantageous for animals to be governed by men This concept explains and justifies why they thought that it was necessary for men to hold power over women. On the other hand, the philosopher Plato said, "that man and women with the same natural ability should receive the same education and training and to the same kind of work. Hence there will be female guardians and rulers, as well as male ones" Grade, , p.
Classes of Women Athenian women were divided into three general classes. The lowest class was the slave women, who did the menial domestic chores and helped to raise the children of the wife. Male slaves worked in the trade arts, including pottery making, glass working, and wood working, or educating the sons of a house. The second class of women was the Athenian citizen woman, who could pass the right of citizenship to her sons. The third class was known as the Hetaerae. Unlike the slaves and the citizens, they were given an education in reading, writing, and music, and were allowed into the Agora and other places that were off limits to citizen and slave women.
The individual lived and died for the state. Their lives were designed to serve the state from their beginning to the age of sixty. Ironically, this soldier-centered state was the most liberal state with regard to the status of women. Education Women did not go through military training, but they were required to be educated in a similar manner. The Spartans were the only Greeks who took seriously the education of women and also established it as state policy.
This was not an academic education for the women or the men.
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